SEMINAR & THEMATIC MEETING, MARCH 2014, OSLO
Strategic Guidance Framework for International Police Peacekeeping

On 18 March a Challenges Forum Research Seminar took place in Oslo, hosted by Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) in association with UN Police Division. It examined the evolution on UN police peacekeeping; transnational organized crime and strategic perspectives on police capacity-building. Partly integrated, a three day thematic meeting on Police Capacity-building and Development followed the seminar, as part of the Strategic Guidance Framework for International Police Peacekeeping (SGF) process led by the UN Police Division.

   Hester Paneras

The Research Seminar aimed to consider UNPOL activities in a wider peace operations context. The event, which is an implementation of the Challenges Forum Partnership decision to support the SGF process, enabled Challenges Forum Partners to engage with researchers and experts in discussing the integrated role of UNPOL in peacekeeping. General peace operations experts and police experts were invited to discuss the evolving role of international police in peace operations, its role in relation to transnational organized crime and strategic aspects of capacity-building and development of local police in fragile states. The seminar took place prior to a thematic meeting on police capacity-building and development, hosted by UN Police Division and NUPI in association with Challenges Forum, which is another installment in the UN process to establish a Strategic Guidance Framework for International Police Peacekeeping.

The aim of the Thematic Meeting was to establish a solid foundation for guidelines to police peacekeepers how to conduct capacity-building of police in fragile states. The meeting, concluding on 21 March, was hosted by NUPI, UN Police Division in association with Challenges Forum, and attended by representatives from more than 55 UN Member States and organizations such as African Union, European Union and Interpol in addition to several UN agencies.

Norwegian police officers on duty in Liberia. The UN goal 20% female UN Police officers by 2014. Norway aldready have more

Norwegian police officers on duty in Liberia. The UN goal is 20% female UN Police officers by 2014.  Norway already contributes with more. Photo: Ragnhild H. Simenstad, FMA.

The Challenges Forum Research Seminar was held as the official contribution of Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) as Partner to the Challenges Forum.

NUPI is an independent research institute that conducts research and supports policy development on issues of relevance to Norwegian foreign policy. NUPI has a long and respected record of applied research of peacekeeping and peacebuilding issues, including since 1994 as a core partner in the Norwegian Training for Peace Programme (TfP), which has supported the building of civilian and police peacekeeping capacities in Africa.

Background and Salience

Strengthening the rule of law has emerged as a central objective for UN peacekeeping operations. This has led to the dramatic expansion and increasing complexity of mandates and tasks of international police in peacekeeping operations. The complexity of current and anticipated future UN peace operations demands enhanced strategic thinking and more sophisticated understanding of how to face the tasks at hand. In 2008, the Office of Internal Oversight Services strongly recommended that UN Police (UNPOL) develop a ‘United Nations police doctrine’. Later that year, a panel of experts assigned to review the Police Division emphasized the need for a ‘strategic doctrinal framework’ for police in peacekeeping. Since some argue that the term ‘doctrine’ is problematic and too political, UNPOL decided on another name for its overarching policy architecture – the ‘Strategic Guidance Framework for International Police Peacekeeping’.

UN Objectives of SGF Process

The UN Police Division has identified a need to develop the SGF in order to strengthen peace operations. The role of the SGF is to articulate existing central principles by which United Nations Police operates, more clearly and assist in operationalizing them within a UNPOL context. It could also describe key activities that UNPOL successfully has executed in order for Member States to better identify what tasks UNPOL would be assigned in any given situation. At no time will the framework be considered immutable. It will be subjected to periodic review and amendment in order to ensure it keeps pace with changes in international peacekeeping.

The SGF will be comprised of a general policy document, specialized subsidiary policy documents, and related training materials. The first policy document, United Nations Police in Peacekeeping Operations and Special Political Missions, was endorsed in January 2014.

The main rationale behind developing a cohesive Strategic Guidance Framework is to enhance the effectiveness of UN Police Peacekeeping through more consistent, harmonized approaches to the provision of public safety, police reform and support to local police services, and through a more sophisticated recruitment of personnel with the necessary specialized skills and experience.

Police peacekeeping and UNPOL activities are sometimes considered as a separate or stand-alone set of peacekeeping activities of lesser importance. UNPOL is occasionally perceived as subcontractor to the military in terms of delivering security. It is important to underline the integrated role and complementary nature of UNPOL peacekeeping activities, both in terms of creating secure and conducive environments for society, and its contribution to peacebuilding. Therefore, the SGF deserves to be discussed in the wider peace operations context.

The research seminar on the United Nations Strategic Guidance Framework for International Police Peacekeeping (SGF) is part of a Challenges Forum work strand in support of the SGF process. The seminar was co-hosted by the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) in association with UN Police Division.

Group picture from the Challenges Forum research seminar

All photos from the Oslo meetings by Siv Dolmen

Welcome and Opening Remarks

Dr. Ole-Jacob Sending, Mr. John Ståle Stamnes, Ms. Annika Hilding-Norberg.

Speakers:

Dr. Ole-Jacob Sending, Research Director, NUPI

Mr. John Ståle Stamnes, Director International Police Cooperation, Norwegian Police Departement

Ms. Annika Hilding-Norberg, Director, Challenges Forum

Keynote Speech: Mr. Dmitry Titov, Assistant Secretary-General, Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions, DPK

Mr. Dmitry Titov.

Mr. Dmitry Titov, Assistant Secretary-General, Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions, DPKO


Session 1: The Role of International Police in a Rapidly Changing Peace Operations Environment

Background Paper: William J. Durch, Police in UN Peace Operations: Evolving Roles and Requirements

Strengthening the rule of law has emerged as a central objective for international peace operations, leading to the dramatic expansion and increasing complexity of mandates and tasks of international police. The complexity of current and anticipated future peace operations are demanding enhanced strategic thinking and more sophisticated understanding of how to face the tasks at hand. Yet police peacekeeping are still sometimes considered as separate or stand-alone activities, and international police components are occasionally perceived as subcontractor to the military in terms of delivering security. This session explores the development of international police peacekeeping in peacekeeping and peacebuilding, and its integrated role with the civilian and military dimensions in creating secure and conducive environments for society.

Chair: Mr. Cedric de Coning, Speakers: Dr. William Durch, Ms. Hester Paneras, Dr. Fredrick Yiga.


Chair:
Dr. Cedric de Coning, Head, Peace Operations and Peacebuilding Research Group, NUPI 

Speakers:
Dr. William Durch, Senior Associate, The Stimson Center

Ms. Hester Paneras, Police Commissioner, UNAMID

Dr. Fredrick Yiga, Police Commissioner, UNMISS

Session 2: Transnational Organized Crime and the Role of International Police in Peace Operation

Background Paper: Wibke Hansen, Interfaces Between Peace Operations and Organized Crime

Organized crime is a feature of the local context of many peace operations, with often direct implications for security and peacebuilding objectives in governance and development in conflict-affected states. Yet mission mandates, equipment, and personnel preparation have often ignored or overlooked this factor. This session considers how international police in peace operations can deal more effectively with the threats posed by organized crime, as well as the role to be played by other actors and instruments in strengthening the rule of law and justice delivery.

Ms. Ingrid Dagestad, Dr. Wibke Hansen, Mr. Filip de Ceuninck, Dr. Thomas Jaye.

Chair:
Ms. Ingrid Dagestad, Head of Department, Norwegian National Criminal Investigation Service

Speakers:

Dr. Wibke Hansen, Deputy Director, Center for International Peace Operations (ZIF)

Mr. Filip de Ceuninck, Deputy Head of Mission (a.i. HoM), EUCAP Sahel-Niger

Dr. Thomas Jaye, Deputy Director, Faculty of Academic Affairs and Research, Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre

Session 3: Capacity-building and Development of Local Police Forces and the Role of International Police

Background Paper: Marina Caparini: Capacity-building and Development of Host State Police: the Role of International Police

International police are now routinely tasked with a range of activities from assisting in the reform or rebuilding of host-state police institutions to imparting specific skillsets among police officers. This session discusses some key challenges that have been encountered in police capacity development, including the selection of appropriate personnel for capacity-building, the adapting of international police assistance to local contexts, and the politics of police-building in countries where non-state justice and security predominates, and the link between police building and broader rule of law and justice reform.

Mr. Henrik Malmquist, Ms. Marina Caparini, Ms. Shelaagh Stewart, Mr. Jean-Yonel Trecile.

Chair:
Mr. Henrik Malmquist, Head, Swedish National Bureau of Investigation


Speakers:
Ms. Marina Caparini, Senior Research Fellow, Peace Operations Research Group, NUPI

Ms. Shelaagh Stewart, Director, Governance and Rule of Law, Bureau for Crisis Prevention & Recovery, UNDP

Mr. Jean-Yonel Trecile, Inspector General and Director of Cabinet of the Haiti National Police

Concluding Remarks

Mr. Henrik Stiernblad, Mr. Andrew Carpenter, Mr. Cedric de Coning.

Speakers:

Mr. Henrik Stiernblad, Deputy Director, Challenges Forum

Mr. Andrew Carpenter, Chief, Strategic Policy and Development Section, Police Division, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, United Nations

Mr. Cedric de Coning, Head, Peace Operations Research Group, NUPI

 

The delegates at the Thematic Meeting

Opening Panel

Dr. Cedric de Coning, Head, Peace Operations and Peacebuilding, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), Ms. Annika Hilding-Norberg, Director, Challenges Forum Secretariat, Prof. David Bayley,  Mr. Dmitry Titov, Assistant Secretary-General, Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), Mr. John Ståle Stamnes, Assistant National Police Commissioner of Norway.

Prof. David Bayley.

Keynote speech by Prof. David Bayley: “Police Development: Getting It Right.”

In several panel and group discussions many themes were covered in depth: Fundamental Principles of Capacity-Building and Police Development in International Settings, how to prioritize, sequence and implement tasks related to support of the host-State’s policing services, enabling services, policy formulation teams, accountability and governance, engagement with all relevant stakeholders.

 Mr Andrew Carpenter, Chief Strategic Policy and Development Section (SPDS), Police Division. SGF: Purpose and Progress to date

Mr Andrew Carpenter, Chief Strategic Policy and Development Section (SPDS), Police Division speaking on "SGF: Purpose and Progress to date".

Question from the floor.

Question from the floor.